A international team including Danielle Berg and John Chisholm have confirmed that what flows into a galaxy is a lot cleaner than what flows out. This galactic gas cycle regulates the creation of stars. The study provides a concrete benchmark to test theories of galaxy evolution.
Camelopardalis, the giraffe, wraps around Polaris, the north star. Its main outline is in the north-northeast at nightfall. It stands high above Polaris around midnight, and whirls to the north-northwest at first light.